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MEDIEVAL MOVIES VII

Updating and correcting “Medieval Movies: Films of the Viking Era,” to include films released since the last edition. And discovered there were many other films as well…

I’ll be posting comments on some of the ones not covered before for the next month!

Olav (2021) (tv series)

A strange, delightful and effective mixture of modern and medieval, where Kristofer Hivju in modern day searches for him in the twenty-first century while there are segments from the eleventh. A portrayal and search for one of the greatest Norwegian heroes and allegedly Hijvu’s great hero. Costuming is mostly accurate, though the cloaks tend to be fur. The CGI is simple but more effective than many other productions. But so well detailing the man and the search that you do not really notice any errors. Combat scenes show that you can do very effective combat scenes without being too gristly or blood. The series is in three parts, and each part deals with a different part of Olaf’s life and the happenings after his death: Olaf’s life as a Viking, as a king and as a saint. I started watching just before midnight and had to finish the three-hour production!

Killian’s Chronicle: The Magic Stone (1995)

A fascinating and well-done story of the interaction between Irishman and skraeling, as well as heathen versus Christian The film-makers make the most of what the budget allows it is very satisfying. The magic stone is a sunstone, and there are many other details are part of little-known aspects of the culture. Costumes are more than adequate for the most part, and while there are waistcotes, there re no furry cloaks. The skraeling do call the Norse “bear people,” which might be a sly reference to bearsarks. Even the already dodgy character going combat mad after being treated with mushrooms after a being stuck by the porcupine he was tormenting makes a lot of sense but is never directly alluded to. Unfortunately, chess is frequently played though this was a time when the game had not been introduced to Europe. Why couldn’t it have been Fidchell?

Sword of Vengeance (2015)

aka Schwert der Rache aka La Spada Della Vendetta

Bad two-sword combat, plenty of bloody gore and really neat and cool explosions! Lots of running in bad costume and worse armor. Nice horns on their helmets!

Beowulf: Return to the Shieldlands (2016) (TV Mini Series)

aka Beowulf

Bad armor, terrible costumes, bad weapons, incredibly bad CGI but enough blood and gore to keep the folks who love this stuff happy. Even the scenery is somewhat banal and sterile. Even the CGI creation of knotwork is pretty uninspiring compared to its primitive antecedents from Magnus Magnusson’s “Vikng” series from years ago. There are at least no stone keeps, but the wooden structures they present are no less inaccurate, though in a different way. The sets look as if they done by Frazetta on a really bad day. Lots of furry cloaks and black garments and armor, which is the best way they seem to think to prove they are being accurate. Incredibly pretentious as it screams out of be a comedy. Great furry cloaks though. Do not watch this in hopes of getting ideas for an accurate reenactment.

MEDIEVAL MOVIES VI

Updating and correcting “Medieval Movies: Films of the Viking Era,” to include films released since the last edition. And discovered there were many other films as well…

I’ll be posting comments on some of the ones not covered before for the next month!

Trees Grow on the Stones Too (1985)

Aka Flukt aka I Na Kamnyakh Rastut Derevya aka Dragens Fange

Rather bland photography and choreography, without much crispness, innovation nor artistic innovation. Scenes are rather static and old fashioned, and even the action is rather dull, with Vikings prancing delicately around. The combat scenes are rather staged and amateur, as if they were choreographed by a high-school drama teacher. And let’s not talk about over-acting. Which is too bad since the costumes are decent (though with the hoods of a later era, puttees that are indescribable, too many visible bags and belts that are much too wide), the props are accurate and I saw no furry cloaks or fur-lined caps for some time into the film. The word parts of this film is far better than the best parts of some later films, though, though it is not as enjoyable as some reviewers have said. It started out rather fine and goes downhill through much of the film. If I was able to get a translation, I might not be so critical, but I had to focus on what I saw. For example, they used plenty of buttons!

Stone Forest, The (1965)

aka Il Tesoro Della Foresta Pietrificata aka Treasure of the Petrified Forest

Viciously bad acting, typical Italian Viking costume and unusually sterile photography. It mentions Vikings by name and is a clever mash-up where the opera by Wagner is crossed with a Humphrey Bogart film! Not recommended for researching costume, though it is at least not a poor retread of Fritz Lang. The only reason to research thi is just to see how you should write a really really bad film. But the dry ice budget was probably a lot more than the costume!

El Príncipe Encadenado (1960)

aka King of the Vikings

A Spanish film adapted from a seventeenth-century play that presented Spanish culture as the best of all time but attempts to meld generic Viking culture with a the play. Costumes and armor is ludicrous and bright, possibly rejected by Italian Viking films, and seem more similar to those used in films of classical times than whatever time this is presending to be. Weapons are similar to Spanish or Muslim versions, and the scenerey is filled with castles and stone buildings, not even giving a token nod to period woodn buildings. It is amusing that, after a while, you recognize the scenery used in Spanish films as easily as that used by John Ford in Monument Valley. There are, of course, no drakkars, not even row boats with dragon prows.

Sweaty Beards (2010)

aka Die verrückten Wikinger—Die vergessene Wikinger-Legende

A Swedish comedy that is actually funny, inspired by Monty Python. Costumes are relatively accurate, unless the inaccurate costumes are meant to be amusing. Props are more accurate than they need to be, and the actions are often broad and burlesque.

MEDIEVAL MOVIES V

Updating and correcting “Medieval Movies: Films of the Viking Era,” to include films released since the last edition. And discovered there were many other films as well…

I’ll be posting comments on some of the ones not covered before for the next month!

The Huntress: Rune of the Dead (2019)

A quiet film that is more Asatru than Christian using runes as developed in modern paganism, that uses subtle dark fantasy. A well-crafted film that is not the typical clash-boom Viking film. The violence slowly rises and becomes overwhelming but rapid. And in an amusing piece, a child plays with a top that is obviously a spindle whorl! Costume is good if not perfect, and we must deal with older women with long unbound hair, and a daughter wearing tunic and trews. Very well done, extremely effective and highly recommended!

Pagan Warrior (2019)

aka Vikings Vs Krampus aka Das Krampus Massaker 2

We are placed willingly into a Viking film that is so obviously bad that there is no way to recommend this as an historical film, but have every right to recommend it as a comedy. How else can you appreciate a film that is unable to delineate between 812 and 1812 and that includes twenty-first century scenes as well? Another deeply serious horror film that does not seem to recognize—or at least hopes you do not see—how incredibly stupid it is. Of perhaps, the is its selling point. In any event, just enjoy it and enjoy the sight of the Vikings and Krampus. Poorly acted, poorly costumed, poorly environed, but damn is it funny! Grab a mead and settle back! And if this is an example of a modern horror film, I’m not surprised that I haven’t seen a horror film since “White Zombie!” The ITV drug, by the way, budget must be monumental!

Viking: The Berserkers (2014)

aka Viking Berserkers aka Vikings—L’âme des Guerriers

A much better than it could have been, without bing a quality effort. Poor effects, but you can see what they are striving for, and they are so earnest that you feel sorry that they cannot get there. Homes seem temporary and ramshackle, though not intended in the film to be temporary. And the jail cage is incredibly flimsy. Good scenery, including forests and waterfalls, and a nice cart that seems related to the Oseberg waggon but consdierably simpler. The main sword is two-handed, but their mamnufacture of bows and arrows, while rather crude and ineffectual, sow that they checked with the historical method. Fairly accurate costuming, except for the fur cloaks and short sleeves, with hair shaved as if they were Normans a couple centuries later. The main female character wears trousers and armor, with no head coverings since this is a twenty-first century film. The berserks, the villains of the piece, were were fairly stereotypical villains in period works, and the berserks in this film are druggies and quite suitable, though many viewers probably think they were actual. They affect odd makeup white facs with dark circles around the fire. Not period but effective at being weird. They call the time the Dark Ages and seem to want to make everything as dark and subdued, so that even the daytime scenes are rather flat and dark, and some of the action is had to discern properly. What you can see is pretty suspenseful and well-done action if nothing new or innovative.

Arnljot (1927)

A lost film; if a copy is available or discovered, please let me know! Probably based on Wilhelm Peterson-Berger’s opera from 1910.

MEDIEVAL MOVIES IIII

Updating and correcting “Medieval Movies: Films of the Viking Era,” to include films released since the last edition. And discovered there were many other films as well…

I’ll be posting comments on some of the ones not covered before for the next month!

Erik, the Viking (1965)

aka Erik il Vichingo aka Vengeance of the Vikings

Another Italian Spaghetti Northern film. Filled with cheerfully anachronistic costume, props and storylines with a very tenuous connection to historical facts. There is little difference between this and other Italian Viking films, and if you re able to like one–and can forgive the errors and the over-acting, this will be another film you will love. I just think that it is funny that they reach Vinland without even mentioning Greenland or Iceland, though I love the cactus and tropical plants that grows in Vinland! And it is ironic that the clothing of the Inuit make that of the Vikings look super-thenty, and the clothing of the seem to come from a variety of eras. But the film is nicely written and the action is well choreographed. Grab a mead, pull on your furry vest and concentrate on details only if you are good at forgetting them.

Viking Legacy (2016)

aka Viking: Os Pergaminhos sagrados aka Viking: La fureur des Dieux aka Die Northmen-Saga!

I never heard anything good about this film except a reviewer who said the violence was okay. So I watched the film with trepedition. I should have paid more heed to the reviews, especially the IMDB reviewer who wrote, “you get the feeling that someone decided to make a movie on a Sunday and then shot the movie on Monday and finished it by Tuesday”. I could not say it better, though he should have added that they were probably high-school sophomores who stole daddys’ credit cards. Preposterous plot, hideous acted, dreadful costume, totally inappropriate props, forgettable scenery and laughable combat choreography. And the hiding ability of the chased is like holding a branch in front of you and hoping the bully playing hide and seek will avoid you. And I kept hoping the Vikings would just rip out Orlaith’s tongue! Not bad enough to be good, though some things—such as the aluminum canteen and the paperback Bible—come close! And if you re doing your serious research into Norse culture, you can forget it right now!

Viking War, The (2019)

aka Berserker: Death Fields

I think it is adorable that we have a PC film of three Saxons, including a female swordsman, fleeing berserkers who obviously invaded a Renn Fair! Love the wonderful castle and the wildly out of period costuming. And that castle is the bees knees! Great review…from one of the actors…

Redbad (2018)

aka The Rise of the Viking

Frisia has been relegated to low importance in spite of their many importance contrbutions, appearing pnly as villains in “The War Lord.” Having said that, I must admit that there is little further worth in the film if you are looking for an accurate historical film. Though the cinematography is Brilliant, and some of the architecture is well done, though there are also stone castles with metal hand rails, the film centers around the King (or Duke) Redbad who is presented as a freedom fighter but who was instead a tyrant to his peoplw. The film itsel hinges on the tensions between the heathen and the Christian faiths, though not too well. For example,I never knew that baptism involved nerly drowning the heathen. The costuming is only maginally accurate, and mediocre, including shoes ith obviously modern with heels. The armor itself is laughably poor, and weapons are for the most part out of period. The architecture itself is mainly from another time altogether. Howr, tThe action is certainly bloody and violent, and isn’tht why peope watch films like this? Decent Viking drakkrs nearly a hundred years before their first real appearance, and siege engines used for defense thatare rather flimsy as they cast firey bags againstthe ships. The ships keep a healthy distance from the shoe as the warriors jump off to wade awkwardly onto the land to fight, and we see a prescient use of cavalry. And of course we have female warriors and double-bitted axes, while the shield walls reminded me of the Roman turtle formation, and the shield acrobatics is almost as good as displayng cards at college football games. There is little emotional engagement, and the film seems more concerned in presentig Frisian nationalism and bloody violence. Unless you are a die-hard Frisian, just ignorare the film! Or rather, films. This film was edited in 2019 into a miniseries released on Dutch television, with some extra footage as “The Legend of Redbad.”

MEDIEVAL MOVIES III

Updating and correcting “Medieval Movies: Films of the Viking Era,” to include films released since the last edition. And discovered there were many other films as well…

I’ll be posting comments on some of the ones not covered before for the next month!

Vikings: The Real Legend of Thor (2013)

aka Vikingdom

With the popularity of the Marvel Mighty Thor, there was a number of films which appeared trying to exploit the name Thor. Some might consider that an homage, and that is about the best that you can say about this film. It is afflicted with action taken from a Kung-Fu flick, plastic props, papier maché monsters and special effects probably engineered by a high-schooler. It features poor acting, worse wigs and costumes that are bad D&D togs that make most bad historical costuming seem brilliant. They brought in musicians from India to score the action scenes, and the Vikings of course go against castles from the fourteenth century. You’d almost think that it was filmed in Malaysia…ooops. It was!

Last King, The (2016)

aka Birkebeinerne aka Den Siste Konungen

Beautiful Norwegian winter scenery that leaves me shivering in very warm weather. Vicious, brutal and effective action, with a very appropriate Viking sense of humor (Torstein, having an arrow removed, says, “If I die, I will kill you!”). A delightful mixture of heathen and Christian beliefs. In many ways it is a standard wild western horse opera which is very appropriate. Very good props, with an incredibly nice jeweled book and a toy horse, and generally good costuming. However, the armor has things added, such as greaves and gorgets that look closer to a standard fantasy film than an historical film. and lamellar armor is frequently seen. In fact, some just resemble papier-maché egg crates rather than armor. Weapons include a lot of crossbows, a double-bitted axe and swords that seem from an earlier era.

Viking Siege (2017)

aka Kingdom of the Northmen: Les Guerriers Damnés aka Attack of the Tree Beasts

A funny film featuring poor CGI and incredibly poor costuming that must be seen to be believed. No need to care, because it is not really an historical film but a PC horror film in Viking drag, featuring what have to be visitos from other eras. There are even a few costumes that are close to accurate! Castles are featured, of course, as is a renaissance lute player. All this within the first six minutes of the film. After that, the film is lots of ominous shots of the moon, incredibly ominous music, incredibly coy cartoon music, what must b gunpowder and prisons just like they had at the time. During the party at a castle, a gang of vengeful women plot to massacre a monastery full of corrupt monks who sold their loved ones as slaves. Their plan comes unstuck when a gang of marauding Vikings arrive pursued by vicious, tree-like demons on their tail. The film features a hand-held crossbow, an ever so fashionable turtleneck and most of the “action” takes place in a couple rooms of the castle. It was probably filmed at a room at a LARP event, and they were darned proud of it! It is difficult to find any worthwhile part of this travesty beyond the unintended levity.

MEDIEVAL MOVIES II

Updating and correcting “Medieval Movies: Films of the Viking Era,” to include films released since the last edition. And discovered there were many other films as well…

I’ll be posting comments on some of the ones not covered before for the next month!

Pope Joan (1972)

aka The Devil’s Imposter

Set aside the fact that there was probably no actual Pope Joan, since it is of little more importance than the inaccuracies in any other historical film (see “The Adventures of Robin Hood,” “The Outlaw” or “Birth of a Nation”), the film is very well done. The cinematography is well done, and costumes are passable. Some details, such as pails, book closets and saddles, are well done and accurate. However, sexual aspects are rather unusual and somewhat uncomfortable, and her cross-dressing starts after a rape (though it is based in Joan’s previously established piety). The buildings are mainly the stone castles of about five hundred years later, but that is almost expected in a medieval film. And even the hovels of the poor are remarkably clean, spacious and hygienic, though they are shared with livestock. The film is rather jumpy and jerky. Events do not flow from one scene to another, and the music is rather cloying and sentimental. The film is not driven by the feminist ideology of the 2009 version, which some viewer might find disappointing and other relieving.

Pope Joan (2009)

aka Die Päpstin

Set aside the fact that there was probably no actual Pope Joan, since it is of little more importance than the inaccuracies in any other historical film (see “The Adventures of Robin Hood,” “The Outlaw” or “Birth of a Nation”), the film is very well done. The cinematography is well done, and costumes are passable. Some details, such as pails, book closets and saddles, are well done and accurate. However, sexual aspects are rather unusual and somewhat uncomfortable, and her cross-dressing starts after a rape (though it is based in Joan’s previously established piety). The buildings are mainly the stone castles of about five hundred years later, but that is almost expected in a medieval film. And even the hovels of the poor are remarkably clean, spacious and hygienic, though they are shared with livestock. The film is rather jumpy and jerky. Events do not flow from one scene to another, and the music is rather cloying and sentimental. The film is not driven by the feminist ideology of the 2009 version, which some viewer might find disappointing and other relieving.

Erik, the Viking (1965)

aka Erik il Vichingo aka Vengeance of the Vikings

Another Italian Spaghetti Northern film. Filled with cheerfully anachronistic costume, props and storylines with a very tenuous connection to historical facts. There is little difference between this and other Italian Viking films, and if you re able to like one–and can forgive the errors and the over-acting—this will be another film you will love. I just think that it is funny that they reach Vinland without even mentioning Greenland or Iceland, though I love the cactus and tropical plants that grows in Vinland! And it is ironic that the clothing of the Inuit make that of the Vikings look super-thenty, and the clothing of the seem to come from a variety of eras. But the film is nicely written and the action is well choreographed. Grab a mead, pull on your furry vest and concentrate on details only if you are good at forgetting them.

MEDIEVAL MOVIES I

Updating and correcting “Medieval Movies: Films of the Viking Era,” to include films released since the last edition. And discovered there were many other films as well…

I’ll be posting comments on some of the ones not covered before for the next month!

Red Mantle, The (1967)

aka Hagbard and Signe aka Den Røde Kappe

Poor costuming and poor acting, with antiseptic scenery that is found dynamic and romantic by some people. The plot is based on an ancient legend, concerning Hagbard, the son of a slain Norse king. The music is by an acclaimed Icelandic band but seem oddly out of place. Very nice scenery.

Hammer of the Gods (2013)

aka Martelo dos Deuses aka Tanr lar n Çekici

If they set out to create the ultimate farby fantasy dream of macho larpists, they could not have done better! Lamellar armor, fur cloaks, swords across the back, short sleeves, filthy barbaric fashion and ominous black outfits. A passing knowledge of controversial theory is shown, abs there is a questionable bisexual question, who Is disliked because he is cruel and dirty not because of his sexual likes. The CGI is rather pedestrian and certain clumsiness. The film as a whole has a certain violence that would-be stylish and reminds you of an incompetent Tarantino.

Viking Quest (2015)

aka Vikings aka Le Clan des Vikings aka The Viking

Are there no new Harryhausens, at least in films of this caliber? The story hinges about a version of the Greek myth of Perseus and the kraken, but the CGI is rather awkward. Farby costumes look like they were made of artificial fibers, and even the very acting seems uninspired and clumsy. It does feature tattoos, of course, and braided beards. And did they get a discount on the furs used in costumes? The central character, Erick, just a modern nerd misplaced in this Viking fantasy universe probably to appeal to the gamers that seem the primary audience, but it seems as if the writers just tried to throw as many stereotypes against the wall and hope that a couple stuck. I did love the earrings worn by Erick, the Viking Ben Franklin!

Hammer of the Gods (2009)

aka Thor: Hammer of the Gods

Not presented as anything but a farby fantasy film suitable D&D “epic” with a tendency to try to confuse this with the Marvel Comics version. Ludicrous overacting, well as more than ludicrous costume and armor. Terrible CGI and special effects, which can be the only redeeming aspect for a film of this kind, especially when the “action” scenes are so static and clumsy. Confusing, jerky and often too dark cinematography that at least hides the farbiness of some of the armor. The number of nasal guards are incredible, and I do not think any are accurate.

Viking Blood (2019)

aka Alma de Guerreiro aka Viking—L’anima del Guerriero

So much better than many of its companion films. Costumes are adequate though not overwhelmingly accurate, and there are many furry cloaks just because that is what some viewers expect to see. There is, of course, a female warrior with a sword across her back, but many of the sets and props are exceptional. The cinematography is pretty well done, and the film deals with the Conversion in a fresh and interesting way. Since so many films today are copied…homages to other films. This film reminded me of Sergio Leone’s Man with no name films, down to the Ennio Morriconesque music.

VIKING HIKING XVI

RESEARCH SOURCES

Literature

Breay, Claire and Joanna Story (Editors). Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
Catalog from the British Museum Exhibition, well written with magnificent illustrations of artefacts.

Crawford, Sally. Daily Life in Anglo-Saxon England
An outstanding book dealing mainly with the physical culture, drawing on the latest research. One of Greenwood’s excellent “Daily Life Through History” series.

Cunnington, Cecil Willett and Phillis. Handbook of English Medieval Costume
According to some historical costumers, Cunnington is the single most valuable source for costumery.

Ewing, Þor. Viking Costume
Overview of aspects of Norse clothing, drawing from earlier sources, archaeological investigation and the author’s own conclusions.

Graham-Campbell, James. Viking Art
An introduction to the six main styles of Viking art, updated to reflect recent archaeological discoveries.

Heaney, Seamus(Translator). Daniel Donoghue (Editor). Beowulf: A Verse Translation: A Norton Critical Edition
A collection of pertinent artefacts along with what I consider to be the finest translation of the poem. And the translated text is a great source for stories to tell around the campfire!

Jesch, Judith. The Viking Diaspora
A recommended look at all aspects of the culture.

MacWelch, Tim. The Ultimate Bushcraft Survival Manual
Boy Scout manuals on camping as well as survivalist manuals on camping ar useful, but this is considered an excellent source. It examines how native peoples around the world and throughout history have made their own shelter, weapons, tools, and more. If you want to learn more about traditional ways of survival, this is a recommended single volume.

Mould, Quita. Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Leather and Leatherworking in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York
One of the profusely illustrated, phenomenal books from the York Archaeological Trust, showing finds from excavations in York, plans and small essays on the craft. This one features leather work, including shoes and scabbards of the time.

Owen-Crocker, Gail. Dress in Anglo-Saxon England, Second Edition
Excellent source on the details of Anglo-Saxon costume. Minimally useful as practical guide as most of the information is aimed at researching the entire kit. Highly recommended!

Williams, Gareth. Johnny Shumate, Illustrator. Weapons of the Viking Warrior
This deals most with the weapons of war but can be used as well to determine about utility tools.

Wolf, Kirsten. The Daily Life of Vikings
An excellent look at the Norse culture of the Viking Age, using the most current citations. One of Greenwood’s excellent “Daily Life Through History” series.

Web Pages

Coalcracker Bushcraft. “Flint and Steel Basics.” Accessed 15 December 2021.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xp1AnY00VlY

Connor Fitzgerald. “The 5 Best Campfire Lays and How to Build Them,” Accessed 8 December 2021.
https://www.cabinlife.com/articles/the-5-best-campfire-lays-and-how-to-build-them

“First Aid Manual.” Accessed 16 December 2021.
https://kuiyem.ku.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/American-College-of-Emergency-Physicians-ACEP-First-Aid-Manual.pdf

Hands on History. “Bedroll for Viking Hiking.” Accessed 15 December 2021.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QBMD6dAMMro

__. “Clothes for Historical Trekking.” Accessed 15 December 2021.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSrB7MK8R6c

__. “Sleeping Shelters aka Tarps.” Accessed 13 December 2021.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wQegsfegPeY

“How to Tie 7 Basic Knots.” Accessed 12 December 2021.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H1a2vrhhkIU

“Regia Anglorum—Basic Clothing Guide.” Accessed 6 January 2021.
https://regia.org/members/basclot/index.php

“Viking Games.” Accessed 21 December 2021.
https://www.shelaghlewins.com/games/viking_games.php

VIKING HIKING XV

In alphabetical order. Add other items you might consider essential:

☐ Axe
☐ Bowl
☐ First-Aid Kit
☐ Flint, Steel & Tinder
☐ Food for one day more tan you expect to be out
☐ Fur (sheep or reindeer preferred
☐ Kestrel
☐ Leather Thong
☐ Optional Cup
☐ Personal Medicines
☐ Pot if you plan to cook
☐ Rope
☐ Scrip
☐ Seax
☐ Sewing Kit
☐ Spoon
☐ Towel
☐ Wool Blankets (at least two; a blanket can be used as a cloak if necessary)

VIKING HIKING XIIII

WRITING & READING

Chances are that most people of the time were illiterate unless they were ecclesiastical. For ecclesiasticals, any books carried should probably be biblical or religious homilies.

Blank books could be useful, and they can be marked with pen and ink, with pieces of charcoal or pencils of lead. Those marked in lead will fade and must be copied in a more permanent manner within a few days.

Wax tablets are period and can be used to take notes and hash marks. They can be erased or marked over to be re-used, or the wax can be remelted if the surface becomes too choppy.

GAMES & ENTERTAINMENT

Do not die of boredom. Some sort of entertainment might be necessitated by circumstances.

Know period tales to relate or songs to be sung (note that tunes are unknown for the period, except for religious music, but poems probably used as songs were known.

Trekkers may be amused or entertained by games. Period games of various types can be brought or produced. Dice and sheeps’ knuckles are small and light, and tafl boards can be drawn on the ground or on rocks, with rocks or coins being used as gaming characters.

A BIG DECISION BEFORE YOUR TREK

The large decision is whither you plan to record your effort, either with still or moving pictures.

If your decision is affirmative, you have to decide whether you should be accompanied by a cameraman. He might dress in modern clothing, overtly using modern devices. Many people would find this to be a direct contradiction to what you are trying to do, but the decision must be yours, for we all live in a modern world no matter what our goals and actions are.

VARIATIONS

These are all legitimate possible variations on trekking, and each one could be a chapbook by itself. If any of these intrigue you, you can do the research and do a great impression!

• Horseback Riding
• Bringing a pet
• Pilgrimage
• Sailing
• Skating
• Skiing